With so many television programs devoted to the portrayal of lawyers, it would seem that everyone should have an idea of what a lawyer does. But televisions shows focus on only one aspect of law and provide a somewhat exaggerated version of the profession. The legal system affects nearly every aspect of American society because laws affect nearly every aspect of American society.
With a law degree, an individual can have an immediate and major impact on the lives of others. A law degree allows one to defend a person who has been accused of a crime, provides the chance to right wrongs, creates the opportunity to help the little guy battle the big guy, and offers the ability to defend the Constitution from attacks from individuals, corporations, and governments. But those ideals are only a small portion of the actual professional demands.
A law degree program graduate can work in a small town, a rural area, a big city, or even in another country. A degree in law provides the opportunity for a graduate to become a self-employed entrepreneur or a part of a larger law firm specializing in a particular area of law. Of course law is the most common profession of people who move into politics. Both Bill Clinton and Richard Nixon were lawyers who became presidents of the United States.
Earning a law degree can provide the graduate nearly unlimited career opportunities because all professions need people who are skilled at interpreting the words and actions of individuals and organizations. A person with a law degree can work as a practicing attorney or as a consultant with a company that more closely represents the graduate's personal interests. A person with an interest in communications, for example, may choose to work for a media company.
"The law is the last result of human wisdom acting upon human experience for the benefit of the public."
- Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
What does a lawyer do?
Think about what a lawyer does and you are likely to picture someone defending a client in a trial. TV would have us believe that this is virtually the only thing a lawyer does. Certainly it is true that a lawyer does represent clients in trial, but even among trial lawyers, the time spent in court represents only a fraction of the work involved. Many lawyers perform a variety of other services that rarely place them in a courtroom.
For instance, the lawyer acts as counsel to the client. To do this, the lawyer must listen to the client and ask questions that extract as much information as possible about the situation at hand. The lawyer must be armed with complete knowledge about the client's case before the real work even begins. Once the appropriate information has been obtained, the lawyer then advises the client about his or her rights and possible courses of action.
A substantial amount of a time is spent researching the intent of the laws involved in the matter, the specific circumstances of the client, and the previous judicial decisions that are likely to have an impact on a case. Depending upon the size of the law firm involved, the individual attorney might handle the research conducted by law clerks or by junior partners. Regardless of who does it, the research must be thorough and accurate.
At this point, the real and often unseen "lawyering" begins. Attorneys from both sides meet to begin negotiating based upon the information obtained during the interview and research processes. This can be the time when the skill and expertise of a lawyer comes to the fore because the vast majority of legal cases never go to trial. They are either negotiated into a settlement or are dismissed entirely.
When a case does go to trial, a new set of legal skills is involved. Again, the size of the law firm may determine to whom the task is assigned. Trial lawyers require a special set of skills. They must be familiar with courtroom rules and be able to develop an effective strategy for presenting a case. Trial lawyers need to think quickly, speak well, and present themselves with authority.
Planning for a Career in Law
Students should understand the real lifestyle and work habits of lawyers before they make that decision to pursue a career in law. Once they enter law school and are faced with the long hours of study and exhaustive case reviews and analysis, students can become disenchanted with the procedure. However, the rigorous pace of law school helps prepare the student for the lifestyle of a lawyer, which often includes long days and weekends, plus meticulous attention to detail.
In addition, careers in law are highly competitive. Simply earning a law degree will not guarantee a job as a lawyer. Along with good grades in college courses, a law student needs to build an attractive portfolio to show to prospective employers. A potential law school student should consult with advisers to determine what opportunities are available through the school.
Among the criteria law schools use to determine a law school applicant's admission eligibility are:
Law School Admissions Test results
a personal statement about why you want to pursue a career in law
in-depth letters of recommendation from people who know your ability to succeed in law school
extracurricular activities and work experience that demonstrate leadership qualities
Preparing for the LSAT
Acceptance into most law schools starts with two important factors: a good college grade point average and a high score on the LSAT. The LSAT measures skills in reading comprehension, the ability to comprehend complex information, and the ability to analyze the reasoning of others. It is an important test that can determine the quality of the law school into which the student is accepted, or whether the student is accepted at all. Therefore, it is vital that the student approach the test very seriously and begins preparing for it as early as possible. Various books and courses are available to help guide the student in the types of questions on the LSAT.
Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree
The Juris Doctor, or Doctor of Law, is the law degree awarded by accredited law schools after three years of post-graduate law study. A bachelor's degree is generally required to be eligible for a J.D. program. In some countries the degree is known as the bachelor of laws (LL.B.) degree.
Master of Laws (LL.M.)
The Master of Laws degree allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law after having obtained a J.D., but lawyers generally are not required to hold an LL.M degree. A wide range of LL.M. programs are available, but most individual universities offer a limited number of programs. Some of the most common programs are in tax law, environmental law, human rights law, commercial law, and intellectual property law. These programs usually last a year and vary in graduation requirements. Some require students to write a thesis, others are research oriented with little classroom time, and others require students to take a set number of classes.
Doctor of Laws (LL.D.)
The doctor of juridical science (J.S.D.) is awarded instead of the LL.D. for research that includes a dissertation, and is seen as equal to a Ph.D. The LL.D. is typically an honorary degree. In Canada and the United Kingdom, the LL.D. is usually awarded for significant and original contributions to the science or study of law.
Because the legal field interacts with virtually every aspect of society, many law schools collaborate with other graduate departments within the university to offer joint degree programs. Students usually must apply for admission to both programs. Each department then accepts transfer credits from the corresponding program to allow students to earn both degrees.
The fields of law cut across a broad range of areas that often overlap in terms of function. Lawyers who work in private practices are most often involved in criminal law or civil law. Criminal law focuses on individuals charged with crimes, while civil law deals more with wills, mortgages, leases, and other contract matters. What is presented here is a brief breakdown of some of general areas of specialty.
Criminal law. This is the area of law most people envision when thinking about lawyers because it is what television and movies most often focus on. People who are accused of crimes need lawyers to represent them, just as lawyers are needed by the government to prosecute them. Lawyers even serve as judges and magistrates in such cases. Those who defend the accused generally work in private practice or as public defenders. Public defenders are lawyers paid by the government to defend those who cannot afford a lawyer.
Environmental law. Lawyers who have special knowledge of federal and state regulations are needed on both sides of environmental issues. Environmental lawyers can work for organizations that are trying to protect natural resources and for companies who might be charged with abusing natural resources or violating laws that protect them. Both sides also have interests in affecting the laws that govern the use of natural resources.
International law. Lawyers in this specialty must have knowledge in areas that involve international relations, trade and commerce, and governments. A lawyer who works in international law must have a thorough understanding of the laws of other countries. Many of these lawyers are employed by companies that have business relations with other countries.
Underprivileged legal services. Not all lawyers enter the profession for the comfortable income. Many are interested in protecting those in society who cannot afford legal representation or may be otherwise disadvantaged. Many special-interest organizations have been established to help others. Some lawyers may work for a specific organization, while others may be employed full-time and donate their time to worthy causes. Often this work is done for free, or pro bono.
Patent law. Attorneys who specialize in patent law seek to prevent people from profiting from the ideas and products that have been developed by others. It is a complicated specialty that requires some educational background in the natural sciences, mathematics, or engineering. Large corporations might retain patent lawyers to protect their investments in new products.
Corporate/labor law. Corporations have a variety of problems that require them to have an attorney or a team of attorneys on staff. These attorneys might specialize in labor negotiations, tax law, investment, or other areas. When a corporation decides to make a major business decision, such as merging with another company, the corporation has its team of lawyers check out all the legal implications before proceeding.
Tax law. This is one specialty that often calls for an advanced degree, such as a Master's degree in tax law. The growing complexity of tax laws means that a corporation needs more than just accountants handling the financial numbers. Tax lawyers must make certain that the company is operating legally before making a tax decision. Many tax lawyers own private practices that serve a variety of clients.
Did You Know?
Many lawyers have gone on to achieve fame in careers other than law. Major League Baseball manager Tony LaRussa of the St. Louis Cardinals and best-selling author John Grisham are lawyers.
The practice of law is regulated at the state level. To practice law in a particular state, one must become a member of the bar of that state. Admission to a state's bar is not automatic after passing the bar exam. Most states require that the applicant submit to that state's procedures for verifying character and fitness. An individual might pass the bar exam and still be denied membership due to a past action such as the commission of a crime. State requirements vary, so students should check with their state bar association for information.
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